14 Overview of Digital Competence Frameworks Digital Competence Framework for Citizens (DigComp) In the technologically driven, fast-paced world, digital competences have become a prerequisite to live, work and engage in the society. But what does it mean to be “digitally competent”? The Council Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning, has provided the following definition: “Digital competence involves the confident, critical, and responsible use of, and engagement with, digital technologies for learning, at work, and for participation in society. It includes information and data literacy, communication and collaboration, media literacy, digital content creation (including programming), safety (including digital wellbeing and competences related to cybersecurity), intellectual property related questions, problem solving and critical thinking.” (European Commission, Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport, and Culture, 2019, p. 10). In line with this, the European Commission established a common ground regarding the approach to digital skills. The Digital Competence Framework for Citizens or DigComp, emerged, to provide a common reference across the European Union (EU) about the development and measurement of digital skills. As of 2022, the latest version DigComp 2.2 has been released and adopted, enhanced with examples of specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes for the digital competence areas, based on the recommendations by various stakeholders involved (Vuorikari et al., 2022). According to the DigComp Framework, digital competence is a combination of 21 competences in 5 greater dimensions (Fig. 1). For each of these competences, there are eight proficiency levels at which a user can be: Foundation (Levels 1 & 2), Intermediate (Levels 3 & 4), Advanced (Levels 5 & 6), Highly Specialised (Levels 7 & 8).