65 Cognitive Cognitive evaluation is one of the more known ways of evaluation. Cognitive evaluations focus on highlighting the knowledge the learners gained during the teaching. Cognitive evaluation usually asks for understanding of a topic and most people encounter this kind of evaluation during their times in school. Following the evaluation process, validation further motivates learners to gain new skills and competences but also enables them to prove to others, e.g., future employers, what they have learned. Validation fosters understanding and highlights what has been learned. Diverse types of validation Content validation Content validation defines validation of skills and competences most notably seen in schools: after learning about a topic in detail, the students are asked to complete a test which includes a random amount of knowledge from the learned topic (also called “Sampling”). This validation is often used for knowledge with only correct or incorrect answers and when the amount of learned knowledge is too vast to test every detail. At the end, this validation shows content of a specific topic has been learned. Criteria validation Criteria validation concerns a more detailed validation process of the learned content, via definite outcomes. By validating skills and competences via the criteria validation highlights that specific content was learned and criteria was fulfilled by the learners. For example, a participant learns how to conduct an effective job counselling session with an adolescent. After completing the lessons, they must conduct such a session in person. Specific criteria, like ability to raise the young person’s motivation to apply for a job, must be shown and met during the session before validation can take place. This is criteria validation. Construct validation Construct validation focuses on more of a qualitative validation rather than correctincorrect answers. Testing for this kind of validation often includes observation of changes in the long term, as well as conversations between two people (the tester and the learner) to perceive how much of the learned content was understood and can be reproduced in their own words. Tools of evaluation and validation