66 What kind of tools and techniques can be used to conduct a constructive evaluation and validation of skills and competences? There are different tools which are usually used in teaching and learning. All of them have their own advantages and disadvantages. Tool Strengths and Purpose Usage Quizzes Simple and easy to assess, many online templates as reference Quantitative and correctincorrect assessment, knowledge-based (cognitive) assessment Dossiers, reports, portfolios The learners are tasked with drafting a report or complete a portfolio at the end of the course Active research and interaction with the learned topic by the learner. Improved learning due to the assessment involving the learners’ own words and produced content. Need for detailed assessment of learned knowledge and clear understanding of the topic and all it entails. Improve independent thinking and sharing of opinion Peer observation The main learner is assessed by their peers, giving feedback and input for improvement Mutual and parallel learning enabled for all participating learners. Improved empathy and understanding of others. Need for learning from the main participant as well as the peers. Often used for counselling. Interviews Assessment can be easily individualised and directed (in case specific knowledge is to be validated). Validates detailed understanding of a topic. Need for detailed understanding and assessment of attitude of the learner. Also assesses the learner’s ability to explain in their own words. Projects At the end of the course, the learners are tasked with completing individual or group projects Improves active engagement with the learned content by the participants. Fosters motivation to learn and create something of their own. Recommended for group assessments and possibility of having individualised assessment processes (the learners can decide more openly what they are putting as the focus of the projects). Practical tests Exercises, tasks, or experiments must be reproduced or successfully Easy assessment of skills as the practical exercise is either successfully completed or not. Improves active engagement Recommended for assessment of practical skills or practical skills in combination with understanding processes of